ISBN (web pdf). International Labour Of the e-waste in developed countries that is sent for recycling, 80 per cent ends up being shipped . PDF | E-waste contains both hazardous and non-hazardous substances in their components. Globally, the e-waste generation is estimated at 20 to 50 million. PDF | The existing practices of e-waste management in India suffer from quite a few disadvantages like appropriate inventory, unhealthy.
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3 billion electronic and electrical appliances became WEEE in - Globally about to 20 – 50 million tonnes of E-Waste are disposed of each year. publication to address the E-waste issue which is one of the priority programmes .. online: meiriseamamo.ga% 20Global% . Access online: meiriseamamo.ga Electronic Waste, also recognized as. E-Waste, is a combination of used or unwanted electronic products that have exceeded their shelf life.
Following the lead set by razor blades, printer manufacturers have realized that they can make more money selling ink and toner than the printer hardware itself. But the prices of printers are so low that once their initial ink supply is spent, the consumer is tempted to download a whole new machine.
This idea of pushing consumers to download new items quickly by artificially reducing the lifespan of products is hardly new. In , Phoebus , a cartel between Osram, Phillips, Tungsram, and General Electric, insured that light bulbs did not exceed an expected life span of 1, hours. This cartel was dissolved in , when Eastern European manufacturers started producing low-cost bulbs.
But today, planned obsolescence has broader and more serious consequences. Electronic waste is a global ecological issue.
It raises concern about air pollution, water pollution, soil pollution, information security, and even human exploitation. Air can be polluted when scavengers burn electronic waste to get the copper. If not disposed of properly, toxins from electronic waste can enter the soil and water supplies. The shortened lifespans of electronic devices, encouraged or designed by manufacturers, have pushed consumers to interpret working electronics as insufficient or unusable.
Countries like the United States regulate where and how e-waste gets recycled, but many goods still fill landfills instead. The rest were simply trashed. Who even remembers what they did with their first or third, or fifth iPhone? But manufacturers have given people fewer and fewer viable ways to keep older electronics functioning effectively. For this reason, reducing e-waste cannot fall on the shoulders of consumers or manufacturers alone. One possible alternative is to require producers of electronics to offer download-back or return systems for old equipment.
Export limits could be placed on manufacturers, too, where the quantity of goods that can be exported should be directly proportional to the amount of e-waste the company has recycled or re-used.
Then there needs to be an effective way to insure that these returned devices get repurposed.
Governments could give some form of tax break or rebate for companies that effectively process old equipment. And companies could reuse recovered parts from discarded goods in newer systems.
Partially recycled devices could be sold in markets where downloading capacity is limited. Another option is recommitting to repairing smartphones and computers.
Done properly, electronics repair might help reduce unemployment. Companies and NGOs could set up simple training centers where people could learn the skills, and manufacturers could provide better access to repair options and facilities. Government involvement in such programs would be extremely important, as the creation of such centers would need to contribute to broader socio-economic goals.
Donors to NGOs might have a role to play in advocating for such change. Resale is another option. Companies like site and Olx offer the means, but obsolescence still hampers second-hand use.
If older devices are not supported by manufacturers and developers, these gadgets end up back in landfills. Emerging economies such as Pakistan and Nigeria, where downloading power is low, offer promising markets for the reuse of such devices. Pakistan has a thriving second- and third-hand market for older phones already; even older Nokia phones are common, complete with the monochrome snake game.
The Global Cost of Electronic Waste
The conditions at e-waste processing facilities are dire. Devices have to be laboriously manually sorted and then disassembled. Furthermore, used electronic devices contain hazardous materials like mercury, lead, silver, and flame-retardants.
Many electronic items contain hazardous substances including lead, mercury and cadmium.
Informal recycling or disposing of such items pose serious threat to human health and the environment. Strict enforcement of waste disposal laws are needed along with the implementation of health assessment studies to mitigate inappropriate management of end-of-life electronic wastes in developing countries. Keywords: e-waste, environmental impact, health effects, Indian scenario Introduction India has observed monumental progress in information and communication technology, leading to a tremendous increase in electronic equipment usage, especially of computers and mobile phones.
The expansion of production and consumption of electronic equipment has been exponential over the last two decades. E-waste management poses a great challenge due to growing quantities of waste.
E-waste is one of the most complex waste streams due to a wide variety of products including assembled or highly integrated systems. In developing countries like India, e-waste units engage men, women and children for sorting and recovery of the materials without adopting protection and safeguards measures.
This not only leads to contamination of the environment, but also poses a serious health threat to people engaged in this occupation as well as to the people living in the proximity of e-waste management sites. Discussion Sources and Composition of E-waste in India Quantum of E-waste and Major Contributors Since the early s, with the opening up of Indian markets to multinational companies due to globalization, the information technology industry has been witnessing a surge in the substitution of domestically produced hardware by imports.
Consequently, e-waste generation in India is likely to increase nearly three-fold, making India the 5th largest producer of e-waste.Health effects include sensory impairment, dermatitis, memory loss, and muscle weakness. Ask for the employer about the noise monitoring results. Pakistan has a thriving second- and third-hand market for older phones already; even older Nokia phones are common, complete with the monochrome snake game.
Retrieved 30 October There have also been efforts to raise awareness of the potentially hazardous conditions of the dismantling of e-waste in American prisons.
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