Доброго утра, друзья! [Интересная книга] Представляем вам книгу Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience Psychologist Mihaly. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish magazines, catalogs, newspapers, books, and more online. Easily share. Psychologist Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi's famous investigations of “optimal experience” have revealed that what makes an experience genuinely.

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Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience (Harper Perennial Modern Classics series) by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi. Read online, or download in secure EPUB. In his seminal work, “Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience”, Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi argues the key to happiness is to strive for 'flow' in. download Flow Psychology Of Optimal Experience in ePub listen Flow Psychology Of Optimal Experience audiobook I have read MC's book Flow, and felt that it.

Attempting to examine the not yet explored link between the orthogonal model of flow experience and its relation to the orthogonal nature of task and ego orientations could provide useful information on the interplay and the interaction of these theoretical models. Since the two theories indicate that it is not the relationship of each scale per se, but the balance and the interaction between the two theoretical approaches, this exploration could add fruitful information creating a better understanding on how athletes feel before and during competition.

In the same venue, previous theoretical proposals among these constructs were based on correlational analyses Duda et al. Employing more rigorous statistical methods can provide clear and graphical associations among variables in focus i. Hence, the purpose of the current research is to examine a the nature of the relationship between flow experience and goal orientations in a more accurate and elucidatory way, b the differences in flow experience based on the orthogonal model of goal orientation theory [LE-LT, HE-LT, low ego-high task LE-HT , high ego-high task HE-HT ], and c the relationship between the orthogonal models of flow and goal orientation theories.

Given the theoretical postulation underlying flow theory and goal orientation theories, it was hypothesized that task orientation will be positively related to flow experience and challenge — skills ratings, whereas non-significant correlations will appear between ego orientation with flow and challenge — skills scales H1. Additionally it was hypothesized that significant differences will be revealed in FSS-2 factors and challenge — skills ratings among the goal orientation quadrants, with high task groups LE-HT, HE-HT groups indicating a higher flow experience H2.

Finally, it is hypothesized that significant relationships will appear between flow and goal orientation orthogonal model quadrants H3.

Respondents were drawn from sports clubs and national teams participating in seven individual sports. The 36 items constitute the following nine qualities that typify the factors of the FSS a challenge-skill balance, b action-awareness merging, c clear goals, d unambiguous feedback, e concentration on task at hand, f sense of control, g loss of self-consciousness, h transformation of time, and i autotelic experience.

Assessing levels of challenges and skills as separate constructs has been conceptually supported by Csikszentmihalyi and Jackson and Marsh , and applied by Stavrou et al.

The anchors for the two scales ranged from 0 not at all to 10 very much , with a midpoint of 5 medium. Data Analysis Multivariate relationship between goal orientation and flow experience was examined through canonical correlation analysis. Canonical correlation aims to analyze the association between two composite sets of variables Tabachnick and Fidell, The predictor variable set comprised of ego and task orientation, and the criterion variables set contained the nine FSS-2 subscales.

Additionally, univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were conducted in order to examine whether athletes in the four goal orientation quadrants differed significantly in the FSS-2 subscales during competition.

Bonferroni adjustment was applied to control for the inflation of Type I error Tabachnick and Fidell, Although several researchers have criticized and not encouraged the dichotomization of quantitative variables MacCallum et al. Based on the purpose of the study, we decided to dichotomize the challenge-skill dimension of the flow model and the task and ego orientation based on the theoretical suggesting of the flow and goal orientation theory.

Another issue of the study was to examine how the dichotomized variables will perform in the field, providing practical information regarding the match of the two theoretical approaches DeCoster et al. Finally, it seems to be easier to analyze and interpret categorical data, having in mind the theoretical approach of the present study, since correspondence analysis was used to graphically represent the relationship among the quadrants of the two orthogonal models of flow and goal orientation theories.

Correspondence analysis provides also a visual result of the relationship between the examined categorical variables, through a multidimensional graphical map Hoffman and Franke, ; Garson, In this map, two- or multi-way tables with each row and column are becoming a point on a multidimensional graphical map, called a biplot.

These points are produced as a result of the row and column analysis in the contingency table data, as a result of nominal values, of no particular order Glyn, Points that are placed close to one another have similar profiles, whereas pointed mapped away represent different profiles, providing a holistic overview of the data trends that facilitates the detection of relationships Sourial et al.

With regard to the above, correspondence analysis was chosen as the most appropriate technique for examining the associations between the two multi-level categorical variables of the current study providing information on how the variables are related, and not if a relationship exists among them or not Hoffman and Franke, Symmetrical normalization was used to standardize row and column data points, for examining the relationship among the variables; thus, the general comparisons between them can be made Doey and Kurta, None of the assumptions pertaining to correspondence analysis was violated Doey and Kurta, ; Garson, Specifically, no empty and non-negative entries were appeared in the frequency contingency table and, the variables that were examined were discrete, with no specific order.

Additionally, there were four categories for the two examined variables, producing a high complex contingency table, serving as reason for choosing correspondence analysis as the preferable method of analysis, instead of others e.

Procedure Following approval by the University Ethics Committee, we requested access to athletes with a sport background who were actively competing in their sport participating in trainings and competitions. The athletes were informed about the purpose of the study, the assessment, and the data collection procedure. Oral information was provided by the main researcher, which was present during the instrument completion, explaining what the instruments were about, how they will complete them, and the procedure that will be followed.

The written information contained an introductory section in each instrument that the athletes had to read it before moving the items responses. They were reassured that their responses would be kept strictly confidential and that they are going to be used only for research purposes. The athletes were asked to voluntarily participate and they completed a consent form prior to questionnaire completion, and were tested individually or in small groups.

Researchers recruited the athletes either through personal contact or through their coaches, visiting them at their training venues. TEOSQ was completed in a non-competitive situation i.

Additionally, the FSS-2 was completed up to 30 min after the competition they just performed, along with the challenge-skill ratings, based on how athletes felt during the particular competition.

The retrospective measure of flow has been criticized for conceptual reasons Rheinberg, However, this type of measure is preferred instead of others e. The Motivation Manifesto. Mini Habits. Stephen Guise. Dan Harris. Before Happiness.

Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience [epub mobi ebook free] Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

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The Psychology of Optimal Experience

Conditions for Optimal Development in Adolescence. Barbara Schneider. Applications of Flow in Human Development and Education. A Life Worth Living. How to write a great review. The review must be at least 50 characters long.

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Flow and the Foundations of Positive Psychology

download the eBook Price: Choose Store. In this series. Skip this list. This is termed the Experience Sampling Method. When the person was engaged in these activities, their worry or thoughts of other things were banished Bokhari, n.

Happiness, according to Csikszentmihalyi , is not a result of good fortune or random chance, rather it depends on how we interpret events. Csikszentmihalyi argues that happiness comes from this state of control of consciousness:.

In this text, Csikszentmihalyi makes a clear distinction between enjoyment and pleasure. As he explains, a task that is challenging and requires all of our attention is enjoyed, whereas a pleasurable activity is passive — it does not have to engage us Bokhari, n. For example, whilst activities such as sleeping, watching the television, or even using drugs can be said to be pleasurable, they require little conscious will — and thus do not really lead to personal growth Bokhari, n. Therefore, according to Csikszentmihalyi, such activities are not truly enjoyed.

Discovering enjoyment needs you to have a level of connection with what is going on around you, to uncover new things to do, and to engage in opportunities that can result in personal growth Hasty Reader, Looking at engaging in activities that can lead to personal growth, Csikszentmihalyi suggests individuals turn their focus to cultivating involvement with passions and hobbies… so, for example, if a person derives pleasure from plants, they could take up gardening.

According to Csikszentmihalyi, we are genuinely happy when we have a sense of control. This is the case regardless of how the person feels when the goal is actually achieved. According to Csikszentmihalyi, the idea that control of consciousness determines quality of life is not new Csikszentmihalyi, Many techniques have been employed for trying to achieve control over consciousness, and the control of consciousness results in control of the quality of an experience Csikszentmihalyi, In seeking enjoyment, the aim of an activity should not be to pursue external rewards or goals.

For example, a person should not establish a business because they desperately want to be wealthy. Hasty Reader, Rather, it is better for the person to focus on doing the activity because they enjoy it in spite of outside rewards or goals. So, for example, invest in the stock market just because you find investing, and the thought process that it entails, enjoyable.

In time, this will lead to boredom, anxiety , or other negative emotional states Hasty Reader, According to a summary by Bokhari n. It is thought that a person is more complex because they have an awareness of being unique, and they have a heightened understanding of the way that they fit into the world and the relationships that you have with other people Bokhari, n.

In other words, flow links you to the world and makes you more unique. Flow also has an effect on communities and nations Bokhari, n. The passing of time has become such a pressure in modern society, which would be relieved if people were living in, and enjoying, the present — in a state of flow Bokhari, n.

According to Csikszentmihalyi, Freudian terms can be used to describe what happens when flow produces a stronger sense of self. Examining the work of Freud , the self is viewed as comprising of 3 parts:. Nevertheless, you still have the capacity to refute these demands and act in accordance with what is best for you Pursuit of Happiness, n.

In other words, your ego is what allows you to override external forces by claiming conscious control over the contents of your mind. Csikszentmihalyi found something extraordinary about the experience of flow — that, each time a person has an experience of flow, they develop into more of a person Bokhari, n. Life without flow can seem static, boring and meaningless, leading individuals to pursue opportunities to create flow.

Csikszentmihalyi suggests that happiness and a sense of meaning can be enhanced by simply doing more of what we love doing Bokhari, n. Human beings are inherently purpose driven, and if they do not have a sense of purpose, people struggle to find one Bokhari, n. What does flow look like in the workplace?

Life can get complicated when we try to keep track of our day-to-day or even hour-to-hour goals, because we are dealing with the everyday occurrences of life Hasty Reader, How can we reach the elusive sense of flow and lose track of time at work whilst still pursuing our goals?

Therefore, even if a person is doing something that the majority of other people would find boring, the person can still experience a state of flow Bokhari, n.

For example, consider a factory worker counting objects on an assembly line. Therefore, to experience flow at work, set the purpose for whatever activity you are doing Hasty Reader, To be able to feel a sense of flow, set small, step-by-step goals rather than bigger, overarching goals.

Flow demands standardization and is process focused Bokhari, n. The key, then, is to approach every activity that you do with goals — this allows you to incorporate the activity with the rest of your life and also give yourself meaning as you go Hasty Reader, Goals are an important consideration.

Everyone loses their focus occasionally — so it is helpful for a worker to know how to find an immediate state of flow Bokhari, n. One way, according to Csikszentmihalyi, is to make an activity more fun and engaging by transforming the activity into a game Hasty Reader, To find flow in this activity, one tactic to try would be to create a game where you set out to fold the clothes in new and different ways.

What about leadership in the workplace? Well, in his book Csikszentmihalyi explains that good leaders have the capacity to clearly establish the values of an organization, to make the values straightforward and the leader aligns themselves with them Bokhari, n.

Csikszentmihalyi says that integrity in the workplace is valued and allows employees to truly feel like part of the team Bokhari, n. A caring leader will also recognize that sometimes they need to sacrifice their own values in order to meet the needs of others.

The challenge for a conscious leader is to find a level of harmony and balance between their values and the values of the people they lead Bokhari, n. Feedback is a highly important aspect of flow in work as well as in everyday life Hasty Reader, By giving us results and consequences about our actions, feedback engages us in an activity.

We also learn and improve through the process of engaging in that activity Hasty Reader, Autotelic activities — for example, hobbies and projects of passion — are activities not done for an external reward, they are just done for their own sake Hasty Reader, Although most people can think of one or two personally autotelic activities, some people are able to make every activity generate flow. An autotelic personality can enable individuals to effectively manage even the most impossible and traumatic experiences.

Beyond simply coping, an autotelic personality gives you the capacity to live your life differently — to live in a way in which you enjoy even the chores and minor details of daily life. They are challenge seeking, and are able to discover ways in which to interpret their experiences in a positive way Hasty Reader, Autotelic personalities are not innate, rather they are nurtured. What are the four habits that characterize an autotelic personality?

Setting goals is the first think you need to do to find a state of flow when encountering various difficulties. The executive had, for every activity he engaged in, a sense of purpose. He had purposes for even small events.

Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience [epub mobi ebook free] Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi

For example, when entering a room full of new people, he would make it his purpose to get to know the people present, to have a sense of who they are and what they do in their life. His motivations were not to get to know the other people in order to manipulate them.Results Preliminary Analysis Data Screening Univariate and multivariate distribution analyses were performed prior to data analyses Tabachnick and Fidell, Stick with It. However, this approach is not new as three decades earlier Csikszentmihalyi started building this trend through the flow theory, examining ways to create and control this positive experience.

Tools of Titans. When the person was engaged in these activities, their worry or thoughts of other things were banished Bokhari, n. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Thus, again in line with H1, even age was unrelated to flow and social identity, as hypothesized. Just as issues such as health problems and failed relationships generate and evoke stress, they also result in high psychic entropy Hasty Reader,